Recent measurements of J/\psi production in e+e- colliders pose a challenge to the NRQCD factorization theorem for quarkonium production. Discrepancies between leading order calculations of color-octet contributions and the momentum distribution of J/\psi observed by Belle and BaBar are resolved by resumming large perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are enhanced near the kinematic endpoint. The large cross sections for J/\psi c \bar c and double quarkonium production remain poorly understood. Nonperturbative effects in fixed-target hadroproduction of open charm are also discussed. Large asymmetries in the production of charm mesons and baryons probe nonperturbative corrections to the QCD factorization theorem. A power correction called heavy-quark recombination can economically explain these asymmetries with a few universal parameters.
PACS numbers: 13.66.Bc, 13.85.Ni, 14.40.Gx, 14.65.Dw
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